What does fractalkine do?
Fractalkine is the unique ligand for the chemokine receptor CX3CR1, which is expressed on monocytes, natural killer cells, T cells, and smooth muscle cells,12,13 where it mediates functions including migration, adhesion, and proliferation.
What cells produce fractalkine?
Fractalkine/CX3CL1 is also expressed in macrophages, fibroblasts, endothelial, and dendritic cells in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synovial tissue (14).
Where are chemokines produced?
Basal: homeostatic chemokines are basal produced in the thymus and lymphoid tissues.
Are chemokines pro or anti inflammatory?
Some chemokines are considered pro-inflammatory and can be induced during an immune response to recruit cells of the immune system to a site of infection, while others are considered homeostatic and are involved in controlling the migration of cells during normal processes of tissue maintenance or development.
Is histamine a chemokine?
In conclusion, we show that histamine induces chemokine production and activates DC via both H1 and H2 receptors. Since histamine is produced mainly by mast cells/basophils, these data suggest a direct cross-talk between mast cells and DC.
What role do chemokines play in the inflammatory immune response?
Chemokines are chemotactic cytokines that control the migration and positioning of immune cells in tissues and are critical for the function of the innate immune system. Chemokines control the release of innate immune cells from the bone marrow during homeostasis as well as in response to infection and inflammation.
What cells express CXCL13?
CXCL13 is expressed by both follicular dendritic cells (14) and GC Tfh cells (15, 16) in the B-cell follicles.
What produces CXCL13?
In homeostasis, CXCL13 is produced by high endothelial venules and by the follicular dendritic cells in B cell follicles.
Are chemokine receptors Gpcrs?
Chemokine receptors belong to the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily and are divided into four classes, named according to the type of chemokine (CC, CXC, CX3C or XC) with which they interact.
What is the function of fractalkine?
Fractalkine is the unique ligand for the chemokine receptor CX3CR1, which is expressed on monocytes, natural killer cells, T cells, and smooth muscle cells, 12, 13 where it mediates functions including migration, adhesion, and proliferation. 12 – 14 Figure 1. Schematic representation of fractalkine structure and cleavage.
Are fractalkine and CX3CR1 target molecules for future therapeutic use?
Take home message: The reviewed studies provide promising results demonstrating fractalkine and CX3CR1 as potential target molecules for future therapeutics that may attenuate pain, inflammation and furthermore serve as an anti-cancer therapy. However, to date, no therapeutics targeting fractalkine or CX3CR1 are in clinical use.
Is fractalkine a novel therapeutic target for pancreatic diseases?
What the reader will gain: This review summarizes the role of fractalkine and its receptor CX3CR1 in various diseases, focusing on their high potential as novel therapeutic targets, with special emphasis on pancreatic diseases.
What is the role of chemokine fractalkine in the treatment of microglia?
The chemokine fractalkine inhibits Fas-mediated cell death of brain microglia. J Immunol. 2000; 165:397–403. Crossref Medline Google Scholar 42. Chandrasekar B, Mummidi S, Perla RP, Bysani S, Dulin NO, Liu F, Melby PC .