What is upstream and downstream in promoter?
Upstream is toward the 5′ end of the RNA molecule and downstream is toward the 3′ end. When considering double-stranded DNA, upstream is toward the 5′ end of the coding strand for the gene in question and downstream is toward the 3′ end.
Is the TATA box located upstream or downstream?
The TATA box is usually located 25-35 base pairs upstream of the transcription start site. Genes containing the TATA box usually require additional promoter elements, including an initiator site located just upstream of the transcription start site and a downstream core element (DCE).
Is the enhancer upstream or downstream?
Enhancers can be located upstream of a gene, within the coding region of the gene, downstream of a gene, or thousands of nucleotides away. When a DNA -bending protein binds to the enhancer, the shape of the DNA changes, which allows interactions between the activators and transcription factors to occur.
How do activators and repressors affect transcription?
How do activators and repressors affect transcription? They regulate transcription. Activators increase transcription and repressors decrease it.
What is upstream and downstream in river?
Upstream means that the object is going opposite to the flow of the river. In this case you have to subtract the speed of the given object in still water from the speed of flow of the stream. Downstream means that the object is flowing along the river and in this case you have to add the speed.
What is upstream and downstream?
It’s not unusual to hear people involved in production make frequent reference to “upstream” and “downstream” parts of the process. Upstream refers to the material inputs needed for production, while downstream is the opposite end, where products get produced and distributed.
Which strand is the TATA box on?
It contains a TATA box, which has a sequence (on the coding strand) of 5′-TATAAA-3′. The first eukaryotic general transcription factor binds to the TATA box.
What is enhancer sequence?
Enhancer sequences are regulatory DNA sequences that, when bound by specific proteins called transcription factors, enhance the transcription of an associated gene. Because DNA is folded and coiled in the nucleus, the enhancer may actually be located near the transcription start site in the folded state.
Does the activator bind to the promoter?
Most activators function by binding sequence-specifically to a regulatory DNA site located near a promoter and making protein–protein interactions with the general transcription machinery (RNA polymerase and general transcription factors), thereby facilitating the binding of the general transcription machinery to the …