What are kulaks class 9?
Answer: (a) Kulaks: It is the Russian term for wealthy peasants who Stalin believed were hoarding grains to gain more profit. They were raided in 1928 and their supplies were confiscated. According to Marxism-Leninism, kulaks were a ‘class enemy’ of the poorer peasants.
What were the main reasons for the Russian revolution?
Economically, widespread inflation and food shortages in Russia contributed to the revolution. Militarily, inadequate supplies, logistics, and weaponry led to heavy losses that the Russians suffered during World War I; this further weakened Russia’s view of Nicholas II. They viewed him as weak and unfit to rule.
Who initiated the Bolshevik Revolution?
leader Vladimir Lenin
What do you know about Stalin collectivisation?
The collectivisation programme was started by Stalin. Under this programme, small landholdings of many peasants into one collective large farm. All large collectivised farms were cultivated by the farmers with the help of tools pooled together. The profits of the farms were shared among the cultivators.
What does Bolshevik mean?
The Bolsheviks (Russian: Большевики, from большинство bolshinstvo, ‘majority’), also known in English as the Bolshevists, were a radical, far-left, and revolutionary Marxist faction founded by Vladimir Lenin and Alexander Bogdanov that split from the Menshevik faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour …
How did collectivization affect peasants?
Collectivization profoundly traumatized the peasantry. The forcible confiscation of meat and bread led to mutinies among the peasants. They even preferred to slaughter their cattle than hand it over to the collective farms. Sometimes the Soviet government had to bring in the army to suppress uprisings.
Why did Stalin introduce the collectivisation program?
Answer. Acute shortages of grain supplies and outdated mode of production on small land holdings led Stalin to introduce the system of collectivisation. Under collectivisation, land was taken away from peasants, Kulaks eliminated and large state controlled farms established. Many peasants were deported or exiled.
Why did Collectivise farms take class 9?
As shortage continued, the decision was taken to collectivise farms as Lenin felt that the small size of farms caused the shortage. They felt that the need of the hour was to develop modern farms and run them along industrial lines with machinery.
How did Stalin maintain power quizlet?
How did Stalin gain and maintain power in the USSR? he used his position as general secretary to gain control of the Communist party, he established programs that changed agriculture and industry and strengthened his control over the party by eliminating all opposition (labor camps, death lists, etc.)
Who was Stalin Class 9 history?
1 Answer. Stalin was a close associate of Lenin and came to power in Russia after Lenin’s death. He introduced firm emergency measures.
How did the kulaks respond to collectivization?
The kulaks vigorously opposed the efforts to force the peasants to give up their small privately owned farms and join large cooperative agricultural establishments. At the end of 1929 a campaign to “liquidate the kulaks as a class” (“dekulakization”) was launched by the government.
What are the causes and effects of Russian revolution?
Weak leadership of Czar Nicholas II—clung to autocracy despite changing times • Poor working conditions, low wages, and hazards of industrialization • New revolutionary movements that believed a worker-run government should replace czarist rule • Russian defeat in the Russo-Japanese War (1905), which led to rising …
What is collectivisation mention two changes that Stalin introduced in agriculture?
Collectivization of agriculture was the major change implemented by Stalin. He introduced the Collectivization of agriculture to increase agricultural production. Accordingly, in the process of Collectivization of agriculture, the small farms were merged into large farms known as the kolkhoz.
What were the consequences of collectivisation?
Consequences: The destruction of the life stock had disastrous consequences and led to terrible famine. It was estimated that 16million people died between 1931 and 1933. Although production levels had increased, many peasants lived in extreme poverty.
Why did Stalin blame the kulaks for the food shortages in the USSR?
Explanation: According to Stalin, the kulaks were standing in the way of widespread wealth. Stalin blamed kulaks, people who belonged to the peasant class but were wealthy, for food shortages that plagued the country. He deemed kulaks enemies of the state and accused them of hiding surplus crops from the government.
Why was collectivisation a success?
Politically, Collectivisation was a success due to the fact that there were more officials now in the countryside’s, who ensured that grain was obtained by force. This force showed that they had power over the peasants and every aspect of their lives.
Was Stalin’s collectivisation successful?
By the end of February 1930, the party claimed that half of all peasant households had been collectivised – a stunning success. In reality, it was an agricultural disaster on a huge scale. Rnowing that further peasant resistance could lead to the collapse of grain production, Stalin backtracked.
What is forced collectivization?
Collectivization was a policy of forced consolidation of individual peasant households into collective farms called “kolkhozes” as carried out by the Soviet government in the late 1920’s – early 1930’s.
Why was the decision to collectivised farms taken what were its effects?
As shortage continued the decision was taken to collectivise farms as Lenin felt that the small size of farms caused the shortage. They also felt that these small size farms could not be modernised.
How did Stalin gain power in the Soviet Union?
He served as the General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1922 until his death in 1953. In the years following the death of Vladimir Lenin, he became the dictator of the Soviet Union, by manipulating and terrorizing others in order to destroy his opponents.
What caused Bolshevik Revolution?
Bloody Sunday in 1905 and the Russian defeat in the Russo-Japanese War both helped lead to the 1917 revolution. After taking over, the Bolsheviks promised ‘peace, land, and bread’ to the Russian people. In 1917 Lenin returned to Russia from exile with German help.